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Hydrocephalus, which literally means “water on the brain,” is a buildup of fluid inside the skull. This accumulation puts pressure on the brain, causing signs such as an enlarged, dome-shaped head, seizures, blindness, and behavioral changes. The condition is often congenital, meaning that is present before or at birth, and can occur in both dogs and cats. Small dogs are particularly susceptible. In mild cases, drugs can help treat signs, but severe cases often end in euthanasia, as surgery is costly.